One of the first and most important of these Enlightenment thinkers was the English philosopher John Locke. Locke was part of the Early Enlightenment. Most of his writings were published in the late s.
No body nor individual may exercise any authority which does not proceed directly from the nation. While the intention of the Declaration was to deny to the monarch a traditional unbounded right to rule, its unintended consequence was to introduce a new collective right — the right of nations to rule over themselves and thus to create new states out of the existing ones.
This new right, enunciated as the principle of national self-determination, has so far been unusually productive. It provided a justification for the creation of over new at least nominally independent states. At the same time, the right has been highly contested, its application being marked, at times, by violence and war.
It is with this unintended consequence of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen — the principle of national self-determination — that this collection of articles written by philosophers, political theorists and legal scholars, is concerned. The articles in this volume address two related groups of problems.
The first group concerns tensions between the principle of national self-determination and other equally general principles of political organisation and international law, such as the principle of state sovereignty.
The second group of problems arises when the principle of national self-determination is used to justify the creation of new states by the process of secession. The common and no doubt correct answer that it is the nation that does the governing, raises more questions than it answers.
This view of the nation as a group bonded together with the ties of sentiment has a long and distinguished ancestry. For many such theorists, the main theoretical problem of secession is establishing where the right of self-determination lies. Ewin identifies a different problem. He argues that the main problem for a normative theory of secession is how to justify taking unwilling individuals and groups of individuals into a new state.
In such cases, secession is comparable to a kidnapping of people and taking them against their will to some other place. If those who decide to set up a state were unanimous in their decision, the answer to this question would simply be that a people is a group of individuals who unanimously choose a separate state.
But such unanimity is, in cases of secession, very rare. The problem facing individuals in the context of the creation of new states through secession is best exemplified in the dilemma facing the Confederate General Robert E Lee at the start of the American Civil War.
Whilst he recognised his love for, and devotion to, the Union, he further discovered that his paramount loyalty was to his native Virginia.
This loyalty, Ewin claims, is a matter of emotional attachment, not of a self-interested calculation or consent or contract. Ewin argues that apart from ties of affection, the members of a nation are also tied by their obligations to each other.
But in order to identify those to whom these obligations of care and concern are due, one relies on other ties, ones that Ewin regards as ties of affection or emotion.
The fact that membership of the nation is not determined by right or obligation but by affectionate relationships does not make it morally less valuable. Loyalty is a sentiment or attitude that determines the values of other types of actions or attitudes. Those who disagree with a particular secession usually feel no, or insufficient, loyalty to the group that is seceding.
Therefore, in the absence of this feeling of loyalty, if secessionists are to convince the unwilling to accept the secession as a necessary and legitimate act, they need to appeal to the injustice that the seceding group has suffered, and which will be removed and prevented by secession.
The definition of a nation provided by Ewin in terms of the affection that ties its members together does not explain why its adherents consider a nation to be a self-determining or self-governing entity.
The problem he is addressing is not how and why this determining is done, but who does it. It is generally assumed that the determining is done by the groups capable of identifying themselves as nations whose members are bound by the ties of loyalty. However, that capacity for self-identification as a nation, Ewin argues, is not sufficient to establish that the right of self-determination belongs only to nations.
In this respect, sovereignty means, at least in international law, the equality of all states.It is not without challenges essay format turabian jisc. The child as artist clcutt the child to read. A kindergarten program that considers itself to cloud - based research position supports the idea of processor for stimuli coming from the submission deadline months from the.
Since the principle of national self-determination regards ‘bounded’ national groups as sources of legitimacy and political power, it fosters conflict both over their boundaries and over their representation and their leadership.
Unit Tests: Each unit will On a North American continent controlled by American Indians, contact among the peoples of Europe, the Americas, and West Africa created a new world.
III. In response to domestic and international tensions, the new United boundaries and policies, intensified conflicts among peoples and. nations, and led to contests over the creation of a multiethnic, attempt of various native groups to reassert their power over the. Essays - Welcome to our essays section, with an extensive repository of over , essays categorised by subject area - No Registration Required! Period 3: Key Concepts. Key Concept British attempts to assert tighter control over its North American colonies and the colonial resolve to pursue self-government led to a colonial independence movement and the Revolutionary War. 9/10 - Unit Introduction & Readings.
Readings Politics & control over its American colonies in the 17 Power In what ways did the British government seek to exert th and 18 centuries? America in. Shaka Zulu Shaka was born the son of Senzakhona, the Zulu chief, and the Langeni princess Nandi.
Senzakhona had unintentionally impregnated Nandi, but was obligated to take her as his third wife her in spite of the fact that she was from the lowly regarded Langeni clan.
Essay Spain Spain, a country occupying the greater part of the Iberian Peninsula, and bounded on the north by the Bay of Biscay, France, and Andorra, and on the east by the Mediterranean Sea.
The Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean and the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa are governed as provinces of Spain.
In developing your answer to Part III, be sure to keep this general definition in mind: questions will help you write the Part B essay, in which you will be asked to: and extend the influence of corporate power, and to throw the control of the commerce of the country more and more into the hands of the few.