Each, to varying degrees, changed government policy and, perhaps more importantly, changed how almost every American lives today. Why did black and white children attend separate schools?
The country served as a buffer between the British and Russian Empires until it won independence from notional British control in A brief experiment in democracy ended in a coup and a communist countercoup. The Soviet Union invaded in to support the tottering Afghan communist regime, touching off a long and destructive war.
The USSR withdrew in under relentless pressure by internationally supported anti-communist mujahidin rebels. A series of subsequent civil wars saw Kabul finally fall in to the Taliban, a hardline Pakistani-sponsored movement that emerged in to end the country's civil war and anarchy.
A UN-sponsored Bonn Conference in established a process for political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution, a presidential election inand National Assembly elections in Throughout the summer oftheir campaigns disputed the results and traded accusations of fraud, leading to a US-led diplomatic intervention that included a full vote audit as well as political negotiations between the two camps.
Despite gains toward building a stable central government, the Taliban remains a serious challenge for the Afghan Government in almost every province. The Taliban still considers itself the rightful government of Afghanistan, and it remains a capable and confident insurgent force despite its last two spiritual leaders being killed; it continues to declare that it will pursue a peace deal with Kabul only after foreign military forces depart.
Akrotiri By terms of the Treaty of Establishment that created the independent Republic of Cyprus, the UK retained full sovereignty and jurisdiction over two areas of almost square kilometers - Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
Albania Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire inbut was conquered by Italy in and occupied by Germany in Communist partisans took over the country in In the early s, Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic communist rule and established a multiparty democracy.
The transition has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, dilapidated infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks, and combative political opponents.
Albania has made progress in its democratic development since first holding multiparty elections inbut deficiencies remain. Most of Albania's post-communist elections were marred by claims of electoral fraud; however, international observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid schemes in Albania in April received a European Commission recommendation to open EU accession negotiations.
Although Albania's economy continues to grow, it has slowed, and the country is still one of the poorest in Europe. A large informal economy and a weak energy and transportation infrastructure remain obstacles.
Algeria After more than a century of rule by France, Algerians fought through much of the s to achieve independence in Algeria's primary political party, the National Liberation Front FLNwas established in as part of the struggle for independence and has since largely dominated politics.
The Government of Algeria in instituted a multi-party system in response to public unrest, but the surprising first round success of the Islamic Salvation Front FIS in the December legislative elections led the Algerian army to intervene and postpone the second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared would be an extremist-led government from assuming power.
Fighting escalated into an insurgency, which saw intense violence fromresulting in overdeaths - many attributed to indiscriminate massacres of villagers by extremists.
The government in introduced some political reforms in response to the Arab Spring, including lifting the year-old state of emergency restrictions and increasing women's quotas for elected assemblies, while also increasing subsidies to the populace.
American Samoa Settled as early as B. International rivalries in the latter half of the 19th century were settled by an treaty in which Germany and the US divided the Samoan archipelago.
The US formally occupied its portion - a smaller group of eastern islands with the excellent harbor of Pago Pago - the following year.
Andorra The landlocked Principality of Andorra is one of the smallest states in Europe, nestled high in the Pyrenees between the French and Spanish borders. For years, from toAndorrans lived under a unique coprincipality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders from onward, the French chief of state and the Bishop of Urgell.
Inthis feudal system was modified with the introduction of a modern, constitution; the co-princes remained as titular heads of state, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy.
Andorra has become a popular tourist destination visited by approximately 8 million people each year drawn by the winter sports, summer climate, and duty-free shopping.
Andorra has also become a wealthy international commercial center because of its mature banking sector and low taxes. As part of its effort to modernize its economy, Andorra has opened to foreign investment, and engaged in other reforms, such as advancing tax initiatives aimed at supporting a broader infrastructure.
Although not a member of the EU, Andorra enjoys a special relationship with the bloc that is governed by various customs and cooperation agreements and uses the euro as its national currency. Angola Angola scores low on human development indexes despite using its large oil reserves to rebuild since the end of a year civil war in Peace seemed imminent in when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again in He pushed through a new constitution in Anguilla Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts inAnguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was incorporated into a single British dependency along with Saint Kitts and Nevis.
Several attempts at separation failed. Intwo years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this arrangement was formally recognized inwith Anguilla becoming a separate British dependency. On 7 Septemberthe island suffered extensive damage from Hurricane Irma, particularly to communications and residential and business infrastructure.
Antarctica Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not confirmed until the early s when British and American commercial operators and British and Russian national expeditions began exploring the Antarctic Peninsula region and other areas south of the Antarctic Circle.
Not until was it established that Antarctica was indeed a continent and not merely a group of islands or an area of ocean. Several exploration "firsts" were achieved in the early 20th century, but generally the area saw little human activity.This page chronicles an ongoing event and is updated regularly; for the current version see Russiagate timeline; please link back as the story unfolds.
The Obamagate timeline election year is a record of known facts about President Obama's misuse of foreign intelligence gathering for domestic political spying, media manipulation, wiretaps, intimidation of journalists and critics, use of.
Executive Order stated that "there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed forces without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin." The order also established an advisory committee to examine the rules, practices, and procedures of the armed services and recommend ways to make desegregation a.
This website provides responsible criticism of the 9/11 Commission Report by senior military, intelligence and government officials. It provides experienced professional opinions about the terrorist attacks on the world trade center and the pentagon.
The Case for Reparations. Two hundred fifty years of slavery. Ninety years of Jim Crow. Sixty years of separate but equal. Thirty-five years of racist housing policy. US History II - Chapter STUDY. PLAY. Dwight Eisenhower.
African American labor leader who urged FDR to end discrimination in the armed forces. Executive Order US remains a global superpower US government plays a large role in guiding the nation's economy.
The federal government does have a role in local policing, primarily through the provision of federal funding for law enforcement for a variety of programs such as crime deterrence initiatives.