Science German Future Prize Fascinating carbon concrete An alternative to steel enforced concrete has taken out the German Future Prize
It is thus conjectured that the earliest Indo-European writings may have been carved on beech wood. History This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message Antiquity Sumerian clay tabletcurrently housed in the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicagoinscribed with the text of the poem Inanna and Ebih by the priestess Enheduannathe first author whose name is known  When writing systems were created in ancient civilizationsa variety of objects, such as stone, claytree bark, metal sheets, and bones, were used for writing; these are studied in epigraphy.
Stylus A tablet is a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing. Clay tablets were flattened and mostly dry pieces of clay that could be easily carried, and impressed with a stylus. They were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiformthroughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age.
Wax tablets were pieces of wood covered in a thick enough coating of wax to record the impressions of a stylus.
They were the normal writing material in schools, in accounting, and for taking notes. They had the advantage of being reusable: The custom of binding several wax tablets together Roman pugillares is a possible precursor of modern bound codex books.
Scroll Egyptian papyrus showing the god Osiris and the weighing of the heart. Scrolls can be made from papyrusa thick paper-like material made by weaving the stems of the papyrus plant, then pounding the woven sheet with a hammer-like tool until it is flattened.
Papyrus was used for writing in Ancient Egyptperhaps as early as the First Dynastyalthough the first evidence is from the account books of King Nefertiti Kakai of the Fifth Dynasty about BC.
Tree bark such as lime and other materials were also used. The Greek word for papyrus as writing material biblion and book biblos come from the Phoenician port town Byblosthrough which papyrus was exported to Greece.
Tomus was used by the Latins with exactly the same meaning as volumen see also below the explanation by Isidore of Seville. Whether made from papyrus, parchmentor paper, scrolls were the dominant form of book in the Hellenistic, Roman, Chinese, Hebrew, and Macedonian cultures.
The more modern codex book format form took over the Roman world by late antiquitybut the scroll format persisted much longer in Asia. Codex Isidore of Seville d. It is called codex by way of metaphor from the trunks codex of trees or vines, as if it were a wooden stock, because it contains in itself a multitude of books, as it were of branches.
A codex in modern usage is the first information repository that modern people would recognize as a "book": However, the codex never gained much popularity in the pagan Hellenistic world, and only within the Christian community did it gain widespread use.
A book is much easier to read, to find a page that you want, and to flip through. A scroll is more awkward to use.
The Christian authors may also have wanted to distinguish their writings from the pagan and Judaic texts written on scrolls. In addition, some metal books were made, that required smaller pages of metal, instead of an impossibly long, unbending scroll of metal.Jun 13, · How to Write a Business Report.
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