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Other equipment commonly used at permanent stream gauge include: Cableways - for suspending a hydrographer and current meter over a river to make high flow measurement Stilling well - to provide a calm water level that can be measured by a sensor Water level gauges: Staff head gauges - for a visual indication of water depth Water pressure measuring device Bubbler - to measure water level via pressure typically done directly in-stream without a stilling well Stage encoder - a potentiometer with a wheel and pulley system connected to a float in a stilling well to provide an electronic reading of the water level Simple ultrasonic devices - to measure water level in a stilling well or directly in a canal.
Electromagnetic gauges Discharge measurements of a stream or canal without an established stream gage can be made using a current meter or Acoustic Doppler current profiler. One informal methods that is not acceptable for any official or scientific purpose, but can be useful is the float method, in which a floating object such as a piece of wood or orange peel is observed floating down the stream.
Geological Survey USGS is the principal federal agency tasked with maintaining records of natural resources. To establish a stream gauge, USGS personnel first choose a site on a stream where the geometry is relatively stable and there is a suitable location to make discrete direct measurements of streamflow using specialized equipment.
Many times this will be at a bridge or other stream crossing.
Technicians then install equipment that measures the stage the elevation of the water surface or, more rarely, the velocity of the flow. Additional equipment is installed to record and transmit these readings via the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite to the Water Science Center office where the records are kept.
Current streamflow data from USGS streamgages may be viewed in map form at: Zimbabwe[ edit ] In Zimbabwethe national stream gauge network is the responsibility of the Zimbabwe National Water Authority. This is an extensive network covering all major rivers and catchments in the country.
However, a review of existing gauges raised serious concerns about the reliability of the data of a minority of stations, due in part to ongoing funding problems. The degree I is a situation of alertness, the degree II is a situation of readiness, the degree III is a situation of danger.OLYMPEX, ground validation, rain gauge, radar, airborne instruments, rain shadow Summary: You will learn how we measure rain and snow from the ground and from space using satellites, and why we need to check the data using ground validation.
The rain accumulated in the bucket of the rain gauge is poured into a specially calibrated measuring glass and the millimetre reading is recorded, whereafter the water is discarded. The rainfall measured between SAST yesterday and SAST today is recorded against yesterdays date on the database.
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Instruments Rainfall - Manual. Manual Rain Gauge. The most common instrument for measuring rainfall is the mm rain gauge. This is essentially a circular funnel with a diameter of mm which collects the rain into a graduated and calibrated cylinder.
A stream gauge, streamgage or gauging station is a location used by hydrologists or environmental scientists to monitor and test terrestrial bodies of water.
Hydrometric measurements of water level surface elevation ("stage") and/or volumetric discharge (flow) are generally taken and observations of biota and water quality may also be made. The location of gauging stations are often found on.