Henry was born at Le Mans in north west France on 4 March Henry had named Matilda as his successor to the English throne but her cousin Stephen had taken over. In -Henry became ruler of Normandy and Anjou, after the death of his father.
Aged 21, he already possessed a reputation for restless energy and decisive action. He was to inherit vast lands.
As heir to his mother… Early life After receiving a good literary education, part of it in England, Henry became duke of Normandy in and count of Anjou, Maine, and Touraine on the death of his father, Geoffrey Plantagenetin Although the claim of his mother, Matildadaughter of Henry I, to the English crown had been set aside by her cousin, King Stephen, inHenry advanced his fortunes by marrying the beautiful and talented Eleanor, recently divorced from King Louis VII of France, who brought with her hand the lordship of Aquitaine.
Henry invaded England inand King Stephen agreed to accept him as coadjutor and heir. When Stephen died the following year Henry succeeded without opposition, thus becoming lord of territories stretching from Scotland to the Pyrenees. The young king lacked visible majesty. Of stocky build, with freckled face, close-cut tawny hair, and gray eyes, he dressed carelessly and grew to be bulky; but his personality commanded attention and drew men to his service.
He could be a good companion, with ready repartee in a jostling crowd, but he displayed at times an ungovernable temper and could be heartless and ruthless when necessary.
Restless, impetuousalways on the move, regardless of the convenience of others, he was at ease with scholars, and his administrative decrees were the work of a cool realist.
In his long reign of 34 years he spent an aggregate of only 14 in England. Reign His career may be considered in three aspects: His territories are often called the Angevin Empire. Some, indeed, were under the feudal overlordship of the king of France.
By conquest, through diplomacy, and through the marriages of two of his sons, he gained acknowledged possession of what is now the west of France from the northernmost part of Normandy to the Pyrenees, near Carcassonne. During his reign, the dynastic marriages of three daughters gave him political influence in GermanyCastileand Sicily.
With Louis the relationship was ambiguous. In Henry invaded Wales and received homage, though without conquest. His remarkable achievements were impaired, however, by the stresses caused by a dispute with Becket and by discords in his own family.
Of these, the four sons who survived infancy—Henry, Geoffrey, Richard, and John—repaid his genuine affection with resentment toward their father and discord among themselves.
Richard joined the protest of the others and was supported by Eleanor. On July 12,he did public penance at Canterbury. The next day the King of Scots was taken at Alnwickand three weeks later Henry had suppressed the rebellion in England.
His sons were pardoned, but Eleanor was kept in custody until her husband died. A second rebellion flared up in with a quarrel between his sons Henry and Richard over the government of Aquitaine, but young Henry died in In Richard quarrelled with John, who had been ordered to take Aquitaine off his hands.
This success was obscured for contemporaries and later historians by the varied and often dramatic interest of political and personal events, and not until the 19th century—when the study of the public records began and when legal history was illuminated by the British jurist Frederic William Maitland and his followers—did the administrative genius of Henry and his servants appear in its true light.
At the beginning of his reign Henry found England in disorder, with royal authority ruined by civil war and the violence of feudal magnates. His first task was to crush the unruly elements and restore firm government, using the existing institutions of government, with which the Anglo-Norman monarchy was well provided.The table shows the closest cousin relationship (1st, 2nd, 3rd, ) between the sovereigns and their spouses and the closest common ancestor.
England. Insufficient information is known concerning the spouses of the Anglo-Saxon and Danish kings of England to enable their relationships, if any, to be determined. Henry experienced a rather more inconsistent relationship with King Richard II than his father had.
First cousins and childhood playmates, they were admitted together to the Order of the Garter in , but Henry participated in the Lords Appellants' rebellion against the king in After regaining power, Richard did not punish Henry, .
Henry II, King of England Henry II of England, also known as Henry II Curtmantle (Le Mans, France, 5 March – Chinon, France, 6 July ) was also Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and .
Jun 20, · Henry II may be best known as the murderer of Thomas Becket, but he was also a complex man at war with his own family. What forces were at play in Henry's relationship with his wife and sons, and. King Henry II was the first Plantaganet King of England, famous for his stormy relationship with Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury.
Henry II (5 March – 6 July ), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England (–89) and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany Parents: Empress Matilda, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou.