November The human body can provide places for disease-causing germs and parasites to grow and multiply. These places include the skin and in and around the openings to the body.
Safe disposal of medical waste. Disinfection of reusables i. Scrubbing up, hand-washing, especially in an operating room, but in more general health-care settings as well, where diseases can be transmitted.
Most of these practices were developed in the 19th century and were well established by the midth century. Some procedures such as Good personal hygiene of medical waste were refined in response to lateth century disease outbreaks, notably AIDS and Ebola.
Home and everyday hygiene[ edit ] Home hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices that prevent or minimize the spread of disease at home and other everyday settings such as social settings, public transport, the workplace, public places etc.
Hygiene in a variety of settings plays an important role in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. At present, these components of hygiene tend to be regarded as separate issues, although based on the same underlying microbiological principles.
Preventing the spread of diseases means breaking the chain of infection transmission. Simply, if the chain of infection is broken, infection cannot spread. In response to the need for effective codes of hygiene in home and everyday life settings the International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene has developed a risk-based approach based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point HACCPalso referred to as "targeted hygiene.
The main sources of infection in the home  are people who are carriers or are infectedfoods particularly raw foods and water, and domestic animals in the U. Sites that accumulate stagnant water—such as sinks, toiletswaste pipes, cleaning tools, face cloths—readily support microbial growth and can become secondary reservoirs of infection, though species are mostly those that threaten "at risk" groups.
Pathogens potentially infectious bacteria, viruses etc. Thus, when circumstances combine, people are exposed, either directly or via food or water, and can develop an infection.
The main "highways" for the spread of pathogens in the home are the hands, hand and food contact surfaces, and cleaning cloths and utensils. Pathogens can also be spread via clothing and household linens, such as towels.
Utilities such as toilets and wash basins, for example, were invented for dealing safely with human waste but still have risks associated with them. Safe disposal of human waste is a fundamental need; poor sanitation is a primary cause of diarrhea disease in low income communities.
Respiratory viruses and fungal spores are spread via the air. Good home hygiene means engaging in hygiene practices at critical points to break the chain of infection.
Hygienic cleaning can be done through: To be effective as a hygiene measure, this process must be followed by thorough rinsing under running water to remove pathogens from the surface. Using a process or product that inactivates the pathogens in situ.
Pathogen kill is achieved using a "micro-biocidal" product, i. In some cases combined pathogen removal with kill is used, e.
Handwashing A tippy tap for handwashing after using a urine-diverting dry toilet in Pumpuentsa, Ecuador Hand hygiene is defined as handwashing or washing hands and nails with soap and water or using a waterless hand sanitizer.
Hand hygiene is central to preventing spread of infectious diseases in home and everyday life settings. They can be used in addition to handwashing to minimize risks when caring for "at risk" groups.
The World Health Organization recommends handwashing with ash if soap is not available in emergencies,  schools without access to soap  and other difficult situations like post-emergencies where use of clean sand is recommended, too.
Food hygiene at home[ edit ] Main article: Food hygiene Food hygiene is concerned with the hygiene practices that prevent food poisoning. The five key principles of food hygiene, according to WHOare: Separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contaminating the cooked foods.
Cook foods for the appropriate length of time and at the appropriate temperature to kill pathogens. Store food at the proper temperature. Use safe water and raw materials.
Hygiene in the kitchen, bathroom and toilet[ edit ] Routine cleaning of hand, food, drinking water sites and surfaces such as toilet seats and flush handles, door and tap handles, work surfaces, bath and basin surfaces in the kitchen, bathroom and toilet reduces the risk of spread of pathogens.
Pathogens can survive in the scum or scale left behind on baths and wash basins after washing and bathing. Water left stagnant in the pipes of showers can be contaminated with pathogens that become airborne when the shower is turned on.The human body can provide places for disease-causing germs and parasites to grow and multiply.
These places include the skin and in and around the openings to the body. It is less likely that germs and parasites will get inside the body if people have good personal hygiene habits.
Fig. Good personal hygiene is one of the most effective ways to protect ourselves and others from many illnesses, such as gastroenteritis. Wash your hands regularly, especially before preparing or eating food and after going to the toilet.
One of the most effective ways we have to protect ourselves and. We are taught how to practice good personal hygiene habits from a young age because these habits can help us in many ways. In this lesson, we'll learn the benefits of good personal hygiene.
Good personal hygiene policies and practices are the foundation for successful food safety and quality assurance in all food manufacturing facilities. Plant personnel are among the most significant reservoirs and vectors of microorganisms, chemical residues and foreign materials in the food facility.
Personal Hygiene: Health and Routine Whether you like it or not, your appearance sends messages to other people about what kind of person you are. Personal grooming extends personal hygiene as it pertains to the maintenance of a good personal and public appearance, which need not necessarily be hygienic.
It may involve, for example, using deodorants or perfume, shaving, or combing, besides other practices.