Analysis of the phenomena of the black hole

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Analysis of the phenomena of the black hole

DESY, Science Communication Lab Four billion years ago, an immense galaxy with a black hole at its heart spewed forth a jet of particles at nearly the speed of light. One of those particles, a neutrino that is just a fraction of the size of a regular atom, traversed across the universe on a collision course for Earth, finally striking the ice sheet of Antarctica last September.

The results are published today in the journal Science. This detection marks the second time in history that scientists have pinpointed the origins of a neutrino from outside of our solar system.

Determining the type of cosmological events that create these particles is critical for understanding the nature of the universe. Before this, the only confirmed source of neutrinos — other than our sun — was a supernova that was recorded in Physicists have a number of theories about what sort of astronomical events may create neutrinos, with some suggesting that blazars could be a source.

Artist’s conception of the event horizon of a black hole. Credit: Victor de Schwanberg/Science Photo Library Could the famed "Big Bang" theory need a revision? Cygnus X-1 (abbreviated Cyg X-1) is a galactic X-ray source in the constellation Cygnus, and the first such source widely accepted to be a black hole. It was discovered in during a rocket flight and is one of the strongest X-ray sources seen from Earth, producing a peak X-ray flux density of × 10 −23 W m −2 Hz −1 ( × 10 3 Jansky). It remains among the most studied. [This was a paper hastily whipped together, some years ago, to be able to send an abbreviated background paper to correspondents. The history prior to this paper runs from Hamilton and his quaternions to Maxwell and his quatemion theory, to Heaviside's vector curtailment of Maxwell's theory, to Nikola Tesla, to Whittaker, to Einstein and relativity, .

Blazars are massive galaxies with black holes at their center. When they try to suck in too much matter at once, it can cause jets of particles to be ejected outward at incredible speeds.

Analysis of the phenomena of the black hole

Acting like the giant counterparts to terrestrial particle accelerators, blazar jets are believed to produce cosmic rays that can in turn create neutrinos. You hope to experience those a few times in your career and this was one of them, where everything aligned.

Grant was in the office when the detection occurred. This neutrino was about million times more energetic than those emitted by the sun.

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His team observes about 10 to 20 high-energy neutrinos each year, but the right combination of events — in space, time and energy, for example — is required to precisely pinpoint the source of the neutrino.

Such an alignment had eluded scientists so far.

ABOUT THE MAGAZINE The history prior to this paper runs from Hamilton and his quaternions to Maxwell and his quatemion theory, to Heaviside's vector curtailment of Maxwell's theory, to Nikola Tesla, to Whittaker, to Einstein and relativity, to Kaluza and Klein, and to the beginning of quantum mechanics. Moray's lab in Salt Lake City.
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Following the detection, an automatic alert went out to other astronomy teams around the world, which monitor various incoming cosmic signals, such as radio and gamma rays.

Other teams saw changes in X-ray emissions and radio signals, too. Collectively, the data is a huge step forward for physicists in understanding blazars, and high-energy cosmological events in general.

To learn more about neutrinos, check out our magazine report: Sources of high-energy protons also remain largely a mystery, so the identification of one such source is another big step forward for astronomers.

This immense effort resulted in the clear identification of a distant blazar as the source of the neutrino — as well as gamma rays, X-rays, radio emission, and optical light.

No Such Thing as a Black Hole? |

Greg Sivakoff, an associate professor at the University of Alberta who helped analyze the data, says one possibility is that the black hole began to consume surrounding matter much faster during this time, causing the jet of particles being emitted to speed up.

Shocks have long been used in astronomy to explain how particles are accelerated to high energies. We are not sure that this is the answer yet, but this may be part of the story. One team conducted a detailed analysis to determine how far away the blazar is from us, astounded to discover that it is a whopping four billion light years away.

No doubt future studies of this powerful blazar will yield valuable insights into the most energetic events to occur in our universe. But I guarantee that initiating this new means of observing the universe will bring surprises and new insights.

In an extreme analogy it is like asking Galileo what his new astronomical telescope will reveal.In the space environment, water is one of the most valuable things in the can split it into oxygen and hydrogen and use it for breathing, propellant, and in fuel cells.

You can drink it or use it to grow plants and algae in your life support system. Fire in the Hole! The trouble began, like so many confounding concepts in modern physics, in the brain of Stephen Hawking. Four decades ago, he realized that a black hole’s event horizon is inherently leaky; quantum processes allow a slow but steady flow of particles away from the black hole, a process now known as Hawking radiation.

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It’s about. Physics Phenomena "Physics is Fun" (Feimer's Physics Page) Physics Dictionary. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z. The Letter A: Absolute zero. Type or paste a DOI name into the text box. Click Go.


Your browser will take you to a Web page (URL) associated with that DOI name. Send questions or comments to doi. Meanwhile, astronomers have observed the effects of black holes and recently even detected gravitational waves from a pair of merging black holes.

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