Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time. We all conduct our lives — choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others — based on theories about why and how things happen in the world.
Essays in Honor of Gerhard E. A Reply to Hirschfeld et al. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. Family and kinship institutions are everywhere crucial to the status of women and men and to their cultural identities. Women and men have strong and lasting relationships as spouses, as parents and children, and as brothers and sisters.
Kinship rules define relationships at birth while marriage creates bonds between adults and often kinship groups. Family structures vary considerably, but commonly involve living together, pooling of resources, and interests bonded through a shared fate.
That such links between women and men can coexist with severe gender inequality is analytically challenging. Not surprisingly, a lot of theoretical and empirical work has sought to disentangle and explain these relationships.
Probably the two general issues in the modern world that have received the most attention concern the ways that women and men are unequal within families and the interdependence between inequality within families and the gender inequality that exists outside families, particularly within economic and political processes.
Analytical Task 1 The analytical problem. A issue surrounding analyses of gender and families concerns a distinction between two kinds of causes. The first kind are the limitations of the larger social environment, in terms of the opportunities, responsibilities, and obstructions facing women and men.
The second are the ways that women and men make choices. We want to consider how these two kinds of causes might interact. One way to think through the implications of such potentially complex causal interactions is to to examine the possibilities using very simple models.
To do this, we will focus on critical moving parts and limit the possible variation in them. In this case, we can identify three primary social characteristics. A simplified model for analysis. So, for our simplified model, let us consider some basic assumptions: Assume that all men have opportunities for decent jobs and wish to have them.
Assume there are two possible conditions concerning the economic opportunities for women: Assume that the preferences of men regarding the employment of their wives are distributed at one of two levels: Note that these are characteristics of the population in the model, not of individuals.
Taken together, these define eight possible combinations of the three characteristics some of which are empirically unlikely. Now, consider the actions possible within the simplified model. People can marry or divorce, with most presumably being married, and with employment preferences and experience influencing mate choice.
People can have children, although the model makes no assumptions about fertility. Finally, consider some of the consequences we might examine or anticipate: In short, we now have a simple model with clearly defined types of people, three varying conditions of the social environment, a limited set of actions people may take that are influenced by their predispositions and circumstances, and a limited set of consequences.
Using the model for analysis. The idea is to think through the various plausible combinations of the starting conditions to see where we think they might lead. We want to consider what would be the expected distribution of actions under each set of conditions, what immediate consequences that might have, and then were might it lead over time.
Some of the consequences to consider would be: To extend the analysis, we can add other possible variations. As think through the possibilities using the simple model, we must expect to find ourselves asking things such as: Analytical Task 2 The general analytical problem. We want to provide an integrated analytical overview of the principal causal arguments about gender inequality and family organization that appear in the common readings.
Each of the readings has various causal arguments about family organization, some directly about gender inequality, some relevant to gender inequality but not directly exploring it. Some of the causal questions may receive different causal analyses by these authors.
Sometimes two or more authors may use a similar causal approach to explain different causal problems.
Our goal is to sort this out. Our overviews should be organized around the causal arguments, not a series of summaries of what each author wrote see Thinking Tools. We want to use one of the following two possible ways to organize the causal assessment unless one of us has a better way.of social-structural relations, often taking the form of role identities, status identities, or relational identities that play out through social interactions.
More recent scholarship has also engaged the topic of appearance and identity. - gender is not a set of traits, or a role, but a product of social interaction gender and display - displaying gender is fundamental to most social interactions.
Most contemporary theorists argue that cognitive processes need to be taken into account in order to explain how the social environment makes its mark on the child’s gender development and how the child plays an important role in directing his or her own gender .
The relations among gender, gender role, and self-perceptions of physical appearance were examined in this research. Women and men who differed in their gender roles rated the attractiveness of. Bibliography of Research on Social Network Sites. Aaltonen, S,, Kakderi, C,, Hausmann, V, and Heinze, A.
- gender is not a set of traits, or a role, but a product of social interaction gender and display - displaying gender is fundamental to most social interactions. The social construction of gender is a notion in feminism and sociology about the operation of gender and gender differences in societies. According to this view, society and culture create gender roles, and these roles are prescribed as ideal or appropriate behavior for a person of that specific sex. Analyzes the social causes of gender inequality. Explores origins, economics, politics, power, sexuality, violence, ideology, and other potential causes.
Social media in . This guide stresses the systematic causal analysis of gender inequality. The analytical questions raised and the readings listed consider why and how gender inequality arises, varies across and within societies, persists over generations, produces conformity by individuals and institutions, resists change, and sometimes changes dramatically.